Mining & Underground Resources

What is Minerals?

Mined Products or Minerals are materials extracted from the earth. Some substances extracted with this process include coal, gold and iron ore. Iron ore is a metal found in rocks that is mined, crushed, and processed to make metal discs called “pig iron”. These discs are further processed into steel ingots that are used to produce buildings and bridges.

These are natural occurring solid inorganic substances found in the Earth’s crust. They are characterized by their chemical composition and crystal structure.

They can be mainly grouped in to 4: oxides, sulphides, carbonates, & silicates.


Pyrite is a sulfide mineral with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron disulfide). The mineral pyrite is a common source of iron. Most pyrite has a brown appearance, but some can also be orange, bright golden yellow as well as black. Pyrite is often found in sedimentary deposits as well as in coal beds and in sulfidic ore deposits. It usually occurs associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins, sedimentary exhalative deposits and hydrothermal veins.

Copper Ore – Chalcopyrite 35%

Chalcopyrite is a common sulfide mineral with the formula CuFeS₂. It is a secondary mineral that forms by the oxidation of copper ores, and is one of the two most important copper ores, along with pentlandite. Chalcopyrite is also the main ore mineral for uranium. The name is derived from the Greek words khalkos (copper), pyrros (flame-colored).

Lead Ore – Cerussite 77%

Cerussite is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate, and is an important ore of lead. It is one of the principal sources of lead worldwide.

What is Metals?

Metals are solid, crystalline elements that occur naturally in minerals. When molten or dissolved in water, they form solutions called alloys. If a metal corrodes (rusts) it is an alloy of iron and contains other metals.

There are grouped in to 5: Precious Metals, Base Metals, Ferrous Metals, Non-ferrous Metals, & Rare Earth Metals.

Copper Cathode

Copper is a soft, durable and relatively inexpensive metal that is commonly used in wire and cable products. Copper cathodes are produced for both the electric utility industry and for the industrial production of No. 1 copper rod. Copper cathodes are also used for the primary raw material input for producing brass and some bronze alloys that contain less than 2% zinc by weight.

Lead Ingots

Lead Ingots are used to store lead in a clean, pure form. They are manufactured as a part of the primary refining phase where they remove dross from the molten lead after it has cooled down.

They are formed in small molds because pure lead is so heavy and hard to work with. You can re-melt these lead ingots in a normal camping stove, or using a smelting furnace.

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